Fisheries, Aquaculture, & Sustainable Seafood, Marine Conservation & Sustainable Management, Science Communication

Oh Canada – what about your ocean?

This is a big post.  It’s about big things.  Important things too.  It deals with Canada – a big country.  Actually by area, it is the second largest country in the world.  It also has a lot of ocean under its jurisdiction.  Take a look at the website of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, a Federal government body, and you will see statements like this:

“The Government of Canada is working to ensure the future health of Canada’s oceans and ocean resources by increasing understanding and protection of our oceans; supporting sustainable economic opportunities; and demonstrating international leadership in oceans management”

Sounds good doesn’t it.  The Canadian Federal Government (which has just changed as of yesterday – see bottom of the post) have a several Acts in place to govern the bit of the ocean they have claimed as theirs.  Great stuff!  Except maybe, as demonstrated in a recently published paper, authored by 19 Canadian scientists including lead-author Megan Bailey (Dalhousie University), “over the past decade decision-making at the federal level appears to have undermined the government’s own mandates for the sustainable management of Canada’s oceansContinue reading “Oh Canada – what about your ocean?”

Fisheries, Aquaculture, & Sustainable Seafood

How deep is too deep for commercial fishing?

Our ever-improving technology has allowed us to fish longer, catch more, and move further from land.  It has also allowed us to fish deeper.  EU statistics indicate that between 1950 and 2006 fishing depths increased from an average depth of 407 metres, to 535 metres.

Life in the deep is slow-paced.  Food is scarcer than in the sunlit surface waters.  Species grow slower and live longer.  Some deep-sea corals, like the one in the image, are thought to be over 4,000 years old. Traits like these are why organisations like Marine Conservation Institute that ” The deep-sea is the world’s worst place to catch fish” .  It’s not just the sustainability of targeted species that is causing concern, but of those caught as bycatch, as well as damage to the seabed and the flora and fauna living in and on it – like the coral in the photo.  So can deep-sea fishing ever be managed sustainably?    A recently published study from Joanne Clarke, a PhD student at the University of Glasgow, and colleagues suggests that there might be a way to make the practice less damaging. Continue reading “How deep is too deep for commercial fishing?”

Marine Conservation & Sustainable Management

Are we really protecting North Atlantic right whales?

With its common name originating from whalers who, because of their tendency to float on the surface once dead, decided that they were the ‘right whale’ hunt, the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) has had a somewhat difficult past with people.  By 1530s Basque whalers where happily taking these whales (and others too) off Labrador and Newfoundland in the Northeast Atlantic.  By the mid-1600s, shore-based whaling took off down the east coast of the USA.  Between 1634 and 1951, it is estimated that somewhere between 5,500 and 11,000 right whales were killed by hunters.  1935 saw the introduction of the Convention for the Regulation of Whaling – the first protection afforded to these critters but many – but not all – whaling nations (Japan and the then Soviet Union being the exceptions).  Protection was bolsters in 1949 with the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (IWC), which banned signatories from hunting them for commercial purposes.  In the US, they were listed under the Endangered Species Conservation Act in 1970, and the subsequent Endangered Species Act of 1973.  Canada, who is not a signatory of the IWC, has listed them under their Species At Risk Act (SARA) as Endangered.  Today it is estimated that there are somewhere between 300 – 400 individuals left, and whilst commercial whaling has ceased, they are still under threat primarily from ship strikes or entanglement in shipping gear.

Continue reading “Are we really protecting North Atlantic right whales?”

Marine Conservation & Sustainable Management, Marine Life

Australia’s protected area network fails to adequately protect the world’s most threatened marine fishes

Australia has, compared to some other countries, a fairly extensive network of both marine and terrestrial protected areas.  On the marine side there is of course the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and more recently the implementation of the Commonwealth Marine Reserve network.  The idea behind any marine protected area is to offer long term “conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values”, so one would expect to see some effective protection going on in these areas…right?  Areas chosen, and cared for to ensure they offer conservation value, to do all we can to help keep species going that have suffered population declines because of our actions?  I’m sure many of you won’t be surprised to hear that this isn’t always the case.  Take a look at some of my previous posts over on Google Plushere, here, and here for example.  Unfortunately, as highlighted in a recent study by Karen Devitt, who was based at Charles Darwin University, Australia’s protected areas are inadequate for protecting one of the world’s most threatened marine fishes – the sawfish.

Continue reading “Australia’s protected area network fails to adequately protect the world’s most threatened marine fishes”

Fisheries, Aquaculture, & Sustainable Seafood, Marine Conservation & Sustainable Management, Marine Life

Australia’s protected area network fails to adequately protect the world’s most threatened marine fishes

Australia has, compared to some other countries, a fairly extensive network of both marine and terrestrial protected areas.  On the marine side there is of course the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and more recently the implementation of the Commonwealth Marine Reserve network.  The idea behind any marine protected area is to offer long-term “conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values”, so one would expect to see some effective protection going on in these areas…right?  Areas chosen, and cared for to ensure they offer conservation value, to do all we can to help keep species going that have suffered population declines because of our actions?  I’m sure many of you won’t be surprised to hear that this isn’t always the case.  Take a look at some of my previous posts – here here, and here.  Unfortunately, as highlighted in a recent study by Karen Devitt, who was based at Charles Darwin University at the time of writing, Australia’s protected areas are inadequate for protecting one of the world’s most threatened marine fishes – the sawfish.

There are 5 species of sawfish (Pristidae) in the world.  In a previous study focusing on sawfish, Nick Dulvy and fellow researchers reported that the group, which can occupy marine, brackish, and fresh water habitats at different stages in their life cycle, are probably “the world’s most imperilled marine fishes”.  Three of the five species – smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata), largetooth sawfish (Pristis pristis), and green sawfish (Pristis zijsron) are classified on the IUCN Red List as critically endangered.  The remaining two species – narrow sawfish (Anoxypristis cuspidate), and dwarf sawfish (Pristis clavata) are classified as endangered.   Out of the five species of sawfish, only the smalltooth is not found in Australian waters.  More so, northern Australia is home to “some of the few remaining viable sawfish populations” in the world.  Looking after these guys isn’t just important for the Australian population of sawfish, but for the global population of sawfish.  Northern Australia’s waters is in fact, globally significant.  If northern Australia’s populations decline, then the outlook is extremely bleak for these rather unusual looking fish.

One of the key steps Karen and fellow collaborators undertook was to accurately map the range of each of the sawfish species in Australia.  They had to do this themselves because only very coarse range maps had been produced from limited data.  Sounds silly doesn’t it – a seriously threatened species, and we don’t even really know where it lives.  Understanding ranges is (rather obviously) crucial for implementing effective protected areas for these guys.  After all, a protected area situated over very little or even none of their habitats is rather pointless.  The team managed to obtain a number of records of each species that they could confidently use in their analysis.  They also used the known habitat preference of each of the 4 species and maps of Australia’s land (for the freshwater habitats they use) and sea-scapes to figure out what the most likely ranges of these endangered critters are.  Of the 2,908 records of narrow sawfish, 741 records of green sawfish, 247 records of dwarf sawfish, and 470 of large sawfish, a total of 524 records were taken within a protected area.  The percentage of range protected was also low.  For their inland (freshwater) range, between ~9 and 17% had some protection designation attached.  Their marine ranges fared a little better – around 22 – 44% some protection.

But there is something else to consider.  Not all protected areas afford equal protection.  The IUCN has a range of different categories for both terrestrial and marine protected areas.  In a marine context, at the upper end you have strong protection like areas you can’t extract things from – fishing and mining is banned.  At the lower ends you have sustainable use zones, which allow (hopefully) carefully managed activities to take place.  This can include things like fishing or mining.  When you are dealing with a species – or indeed a group of species like the sawfishes that are living in a very precarious position, ideally you want the protected areas to offer them the strongest protection possible.  Alas this is not so.  Karen and colleagues maps showed that most of the protected areas (terrestrial and marine) that covered the sawfishes ranges were sustainable use zones – zones in which activities known to be a direct threat to sawfish still take place.  What’s more, the team also note that the Commonwealth Marine Reserve network may not be all it is cracked up to be, with the current Australian Government, elected in 2013, suspending the management plans for the network.  In reality, the little protection the sawfish were supposed to be afforded by the network may be significantly eroded.

There was one final issue that the team raised in their paper – that of connectivity.  It is becoming well understood by scientists (if not politicians) that marine protected areas cannot function as single isolated islands.  Many species undertake dispersal at some time or another – the larvae of sessile organisms can travel on currents to new settlement sites, for example.  Some species – like sawfishes – can travel large distances, utilizing different habitats.  An effective marine protected area may very well need to be included inside a network, and that network needs to consider how critters move around, and how in reality seemingly disconnected sites are in fact connected.  Female largetooth and dwarf sawfish for example both pup in estuaries.  Their juveniles live in freshwater and riverine habitats.  It is only when they are older that they head out into the ocean.  These seemingly disparate but essential habitats for the sawfish (and indeed many other species) has not been considered in network design.  The urgency to consider connectivity is heightened by proposals to develop hydroelectric dams in northern Australia, something that has the potential to block migrations of these critters.

In terms of size, Australia’s terrestrial and marine protected areas may be making advances in achieving targets set by the international community, but they are far from achieving any meaningful contribution towards species like sawfishes which so desperately need help.

The paper which was published in Global Ecology and Conservation has been made open access.  You can have a read of it here http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2015.01.007

 

Image: Sawfish (species unknown).  Credit Simon Fraser University – University Communications/Flickr (CC BY 2.0)

Marine Conservation & Sustainable Management

Where the reef manta doth roam

Reaching up to 5.5 meters in length, the reef manta ray ( Manta alfredi ) is the second largest species of ray in the world.  As a group, rays are highly threatened and the reef manta ray is no exception.  Already listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List, it is thought that the global population of the reef manta is in decline.  The threats to the ray primarily come from fisheries that target them for their meat, fins, and the aquarium trade, but they are also at risk from being struck by boats, and from becoming entangled in fishing gear, line lines and nets.  These critters need our help if their population is to stop declining.   Protecting mantas isn’t just important for the manta’s themselves, or even the wider food web of which they are a part.  Manta’s are captivating creatures, so much so that in some places in the world, manta’s drive a tourism industry all of their own.   Indonesia has the fourth highest number of manta ray tourism sites in the world, bringing in an estimated U$15 million a year to the Indonesia economy.  Indonesia also happens to be home to a substantial manta-targeting fishery which brings in around $442,000 a year.

Continue reading “Where the reef manta doth roam”