Tag Archives: Ocean Warming

What the GBRMPA chair DID NOT say about my coral bleaching article

In April 2016 I submitted an article to The Marine Professional – a publication of the Institute of Marine Engineering, Science & Technology (IMarEST) focusing on the mass bleaching event that had hit the Great Barrier Reef at the time.  In their September 2016 issue, The Marine Professional featured a comment from a reader, in which he stated that he shared the article with Dr. Russell Reichelt – chair of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.  The reader alleged that  Dr Reichlet told him that the article “contains some accurate things mixed with half truths and alarmism”.

A number of  coral reef, marine biology, and climate scientists have been in touch to express their concern about Dr Reichelt’s alleged comments on my article.  After liaising with Dr Reichelt’s office*, I am pleased to be able to set the record straight on what he did – or rather did not say.

*I did contact Dr Reichelt directly, but he replied via his office not directly.

After corresponding with Dr Reichelt’s office to determine where the “half truths and alarmism” were in the article, I have been informed that, whilst Dr Reichelt recalls the article being brought to his attention, he never made any such comments about the article.  In fact, he hadn’t even seen the article to comment on in the first place.  He has since read the piece and agrees that it is factual.

I have not attempted to contact the reader to find outwhere his comment came from.

Below is a copy of the article I submitted to The Marine Professional.   For those who want to see the article after it has been through their editorial process, please see the June 2016 edition of The Marine Professional.

Continue reading What the GBRMPA chair DID NOT say about my coral bleaching article

Where the wild things roam: Dispersal, connectivity, marine protected areas, and my PhD project

 

In my last post I mentioned that I am starting a PhD.  I promised to tell you a little more about what my research will be looking at, so here we go!

The project outline

My research comes very broadly defined already – the work’s raison d’être if you like.  Here it is:

“Movement and dispersal connects marine populations, allowing restoration of depleted local populations by immigrants that renew genetic diversity. Although Canada’s Oceans Act prioritizes ‘linking Canada’s network of marine protected areas (MPA)’, connectivity has not weighed significantly in MPA network design in Canada. This study will optimize regional marine connectivity among protected areas in the Atlantic region by determining optimal locations for new MPAs and evaluating how commercially important species would be representative in the entire MPA network. To model species distribution based on larval dispersal, fishery pressure, and climate change, we will use 3-D ocean circulation models. Then, based on metapopulation theory, we will develop novel spatial network algorithms to optimise the number and spatial connectivity between MPAs under current and future scenarios of climate and fishery pressure that may alter larval supply”.

Sounds complex?  Yep, for me too. Continue reading Where the wild things roam: Dispersal, connectivity, marine protected areas, and my PhD project

Ocean warming hotspots

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This little chap is a Sally Lightfoot crab (Grapsus grapsus).  Sally Lightfoot’s can be found on the west coast of South America, Central America, and Mexico, but this critter in particular lives on the Galápagos Islands – or as they are officially known Archipiélago de Colón.  These islands are home to 95 living endemics species (species found nowhere else), and famed for the now-deceased giant tortoise ‘Lonesome George’ and Charles Darwin’s work on Galapagos mockingbirds and finches which eventually gave rise to his seminal book On the Origin of Species as well as its biodiversity and outstanding beauty both on land and in its seas.  Unfortunately for our Sally Lightfoot, those seas are due to get warmer….a lot warmer. Continue reading Ocean warming hotspots

The science is clear, but what will we do to take better care of our ocean?

 Something has gotten researchers, NGO’s and concerned citizens shouting this week…well aside from the US Government shutdown…

“When an alarm bell rings over a threat to our ecological security, governments must respond as urgently as they do to national security threats; in the long run, the impacts are just as important.”  ~  Trevor Manuel, Co-chair of the Global Ocean Commission and Minister in the South African Presidency

“The world has grown too crowded to sustain the selfish pursuit of narrow national or business interests without regard for the impacts on others.”  ~ Professor Callum Roberts, University of York, UK.

Warming waters means many marine species are on the move

Whoa there little fella where do you think your trying to hitch a ride off to?

Actually, he’s not the only one on the move.  Elvira Poloczanska from CSIRO, and plethora of colleagues around the globe have been very busy bees over the past 3 years, assembling a database of a whopping 1,735 recorded changes in marine biological responses (distribution, phenology, community composition, abundance, demography, and calcification).  These changes come from a whole range of species from around the globe.  How far back data went varied, timespan averaged at around 40 years (so back to the 1970s.  I believe this is roughly around/just after Scuba diving started to become more main-stream).  So what did they find?  Well, out of all the changes, 81–83% of them were consistent with climate change.  Here’s two of the ‘headline’ changes that came out of this study… Continue reading Warming waters means many marine species are on the move

Social-ecological vulnerability of coral reef fisheries to climatic shocks

Just as climate change is altering reef-associated species behaviour, ecology , and community structure below the water, so it too is impacting those on land.  That includes people.  The FAO have taken a look at the socio-ecological impacts of climate climate change and ocean acidification on a human community in Kenya that utilizes reefs for their livelihoods and survival.

Here’s the blurb from the FAO:

“This [FAO] circular examines the vulnerability of coral reef social-ecological communities to one effect of climate change, coral bleaching. The objective was to develop and test in Kenya a community-level vulnerability assessment approach that incorporated both ecological and socio-economic dimensions of vulnerability in order to target and guide interventions to reduce vulnerability.

In addition to a range of direct threats such as siltation, overfishing and coral disease, coral reefs are now threatened by climate change. Climate impacts on coral reefs and associated fisheries include:
increasing seawater temperatures;

  • changes in water chemistry (acidification);
  • changes in seasonality;
  • increased severity and frequency of storms, which affect coral reef ecosystems as well as fisheries activities and infrastructure.

Coral bleaching and associated coral mortality as a result of high seawater temperatures is one of the most striking impacts of climate change that has been observed to date. As warming trends continue, the frequency and severity of bleaching episodes are predicted to increase with potentially fundamental impacts on the world’s coral reefs and on the fisheries and livelihoods that depend on them.

The analysis presented in this circular combined ecological vulnerability (social exposure), social sensitivity and social adaptive capacity into an index of social-ecological vulnerability to coral bleaching. All three components of vulnerability varied across the sites and contributed to the variation in social-ecological vulnerability. Comparison over time showed that adaptive capacity and sensitivity indices increased from 2008 until 2012 owing to increases in community infrastructure and availability of credit. Disaggregated analysis of how adaptive capacity and sensitivity varied between different segments of society identified the young, migrants and those who do not participate in decision-making as having both higher sensitivity and lower adaptive capacity and, hence, as being the most vulnerable to changes in the productivity of reef fisheries.”

The full report is open access.

Image: Toka Panda spear fishes for reef fish, Santupaele village, Western Province, Solomon Islands. Taken by Filip Milovac.  WorldFish/Flickr (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)